NGINX is a web server and mail proxy that runs on Linux/Unix and Microsoft operating systems.

Initially, the product was developed only for Unix systems. The first releases were tested on FreeBSD, Linux, and Solaris, but later the developer added compatibility with the Windows platform.

Nginx is the leader in the web server market in Russia. Many large companies use it on their portals: Rambler, Yandex, Mail.ru , Vkontakte, etc.

The principle of operation

Unlike other products in this segment, Nginx uses a different principle of processing incoming data. The software splits each user request into several small ones, thus simplifying the processing of each. In Nginx terminology, they are called a working connection.

After processing, each connection is assembled in one virtual container to transform into a single initial request, and then sent to the user. A single connection can simultaneously process up to 1024 end-user requests.

To reduce the load on RAM, the web server uses a dedicated memory segment called a “pool”. It is dynamic and expands as the length of the request increases.

Scope of application

The web server is used in the following situations:

  1. A dedicated port or IP address. If there is a large amount of static material on the server (pictures, texts, etc.) or files for users to download, then Nginx is used to allocate a separate IP address or port for these operations. This way the load on the server is distributed.
  2. The proxy server. When a user loads a site page with static content, Nginx first caches the data on itself, and then returns the result. The next time you request this page, the response is much faster.
  3. Load distribution. When requesting a site page, the user is given a response in a synchronous sequence. Nginx uses asynchronous mode. All requests are processed at different stages. This approach increases the processing speed.
  4. The mail server. Since authentication mechanisms are built into the web server, it is often used to redirect to mail services after authorization by the client.

Nginx has built-in protection mechanisms. The information is transmitted over an encrypted channel via SSL/TLS protocols.

The most common practice is when Nginx works in conjunction with Apache. If a request is received for the issuance of static material, then Nginx processes it. If the user needs dynamic content (video, graphics), then Apache is connected here.

The Nginx web server is ideal for sites that contain mostly static content. It can also act as a redirect for mail services or as a proxy server. The simplicity and flexibility of the setup allows you to scale the product without much effort.

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